Description: Leading up to the Russian Revolution of 1905, peasant instability, strikes by workers, student riots, and terrorist assassinations create major social and political turmoil throughout the Russian Empire. Another precipitating factor is the 1904 defeat of the Russian navy during the Russo-Japanese War. When the troops of the Emperor, Czar Nicholas II, shoot at workers marching during a protest to the Winter Palace, this massacre of hundreds becomes known as “Bloody Sunday”. Midst growing protests, Czar Nicholas II is forced to give in to the demands of the Union of Liberation for a representative national Parliament (the Duma) and constitutional reform. The Russian Revolution in 1917 ends the Russian Empire and the Tsarist autocracy, setting the stage for the creation of the Soviet Union. Czar Nicholas II abdicates and, in early 1917, the Russian Provisional Government is formed in the capital Petrograd, by members of the Duma, largely representing the aristocracy and capitalists. This Provisional Government also collaborates with community assemblies, “soviets”, made up primarily of the working class and the military, vying for leadership and in charge of militias. There is rebellion within the Russian Army, due to the severe problems within the military during World War I. This period is marked by protests and strikes, as power is shared by the Provisional Government and the soviets. The soviets are dominated by Vladimir Lenin’s Bolsheviks, whose promise is "Peace, Land, and Bread,” for the peasants and workers. As a means to fuel the revolution, the Bolsheviks harness the people’s contempt for the Provisional Government’s decision to remain in the war with Germany. The Bolsheviks control the workers’ militias, the Red Guards. In the October Revolution (Bolshevik Revolution), the Bolshevik-led rebellion by soldiers and workers defeats the Provisional Government, changing the capital to Moscow and fully transferring power to the soviets. In 1918, the Soviet regime withdraws from World War I, signing, with Germany, the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. The Cheka is formed as the secret police agency to penalize those thought to be “enemies of the people”, whom Lenin says, “are to be considered outlaws, and are to be arrested immediately and brought before the revolutionary court”. A civil war breaks out between the Bolsheviks and their opponents. After years of fighting the Bolsheviks win the war and become the Communist Party. In 1922 the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is born. The collection includes correspondence, papers and dispatches from the War Office: Directorate of Military Operations and Military Intelligence, and predecessors all from The National Archives; and books from Cambridge University Press; video, family albums and graphic art.