Playlist:  The Sounds of Afro-Brazil (Introduction to World Music: South America) by Jenna Makowski, Alexander Street Press

The genres featured in this playlist--samba, bossa nova and capoeira--focus on the African musical heritage which had a historic impact on Brazilian music and culture via interactions through the African slave trade. A distinct Afro-Brazilian culture continues to shape the Brazilian musical scene today. From the sounds of Carnaval in Rio de Janeiro to contemporary fusion artists, this playlist serves as a introduction to the rich tapestry of music in Brazil.
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Ritmo Number One
performed by Various Artists; in Batucada: The Sound of the Favelas (Mr. Bongo, 2005), 9 mins  
Batucada is a type of samba that originated at the turn of the century and is the music accompanying Carnaval celebrations in Rio de Janeiro. Batucada bands still dominate Brazilian Carnavals today, with large, amateur ensembles of musicians whose roots in the country's working class neighborhoods are not forgotten. Listen for the characteristic sounds of this type of samba, including complex interlocking rhythms rooted in West African drumming traditions that heavily shape the Brazilian soundscape. (Batucada: The Sound of the Favelas. Mr. Bongo, 2005.)
26 Dec 2013
The Wedding Samba
performed by Carmen Miranda, 1909-1955; in Carmen Miranda (Vanilla OMP, 2009), 3 mins  
Samba became an international genre through performers like Carmen Miranda, whose samba singing and dancing made its way to Broadway int he 1940s. This piece, which layers batucada samba rhythms underneath a big band sound, is an example of the vehicles of fusion bridging Latin America with the United States. (Carmen Miranda. Vanilla, OMP, 2009.)
26 Dec 2013
Samba Urbano
in Songs and Dances of Brazil (Folkways Records, 1956), 2 mins  
This samba, recorded in 1956 in Itaparica, is an example of a style of samba called samba cancao. More relaxed and smooth than the Carnaval batucada, this track is led by a guitar and vocals. (Songs and Dances of Brazil. Liner Notes. Folkways Records, 1956.)
26 Dec 2013
21-String Samba
produced by Ezio Filho, Rodrigo Lopes, Florencia Saravia, Daniela Pastore and Rodrigo Campello; performed by Ravi, Roberto Marques, Alex Rocha, Armando Marçal, Paulo Moura, 1932-2010 and Sameera; in The Afro-Brazilian Project- Ravi (ARC Music Productions), 5 mins  
In an exploration of the roots of samba rhythms in West African drumming traditions brought to Brazil via the slave trade, Ravi, a British player of the kora, a West African harp with deep musical and historical importance, spent time in Rio de Janeiro. The result is a fusion of samba rhythms, contemporary melodies and the rich harmonies of the kora. (The Afro-Brazilian Project. American Record Corporation, 2003.)
26 Dec 2013
Flight of the Bumblebee
composed by Nikolay Andreyevich Rimsky-Korsakov, 1844-1908 (1899); performed by Harvey Pittel, Vincent Gnojek, Roger Greenberg and Todd Oxford, fl. 1988, Harvey Pittel Saxophone Quartet; in Harvey Pittel Saxophone Quartet: Live In Chicago (Mark Custom, 1996), 1 min  
Desafinado is one of the most well-known bossa nova tunes. Performed by an array of different artists, it became a hit initially in the 1960s. Listen for sounds characteristic of the genre, which is a smooth fusion of samba rhythms with jazzy melodic lines. (Harvey Pittel Saxophone Quartet: Live in Chicago. Liner Notes. Mark Custom, 1996.)
26 Dec 2013
Chega De Saudade
composed by Antonio Carlos Jobim, 1927-1994 and Vinicius De Moraes, 1913-1980; performed by João Gilberto; in Joao Voz E Violato (Universal Classics & Jazz, 2000), 3 mins  
Joao Gilberto was one of the singers instrumental in establishing bossa nova in Brazil in the 1960s. His style of guitar playing, which embodies the complex rhythms of samba in melodic form, characterize this track. (Joao Voz E Violato. Universal Classics & Jazz, 2000.)
26 Dec 2013
Rei Zumbi dos Palmares: Tem Dendê, Tem Dendê
produced by Heidi Rauch and Cobra Mansa; in Capoeira Angola from Salvador, Brazil (Smithsonian Folkways Recordings, 1996), 1 min  
Capoeira Angola, a form of Afro-Brazilian self-defense and dance, had its roots in African traditions and is becoming popular in urban centers around the world. The call-and-response singing in Capoeira is accompanied by compelling rhythms played on berimbau and percussion instruments that express and control the performance of the Capoeira dance. (Capoeira Angola from Salvador, Brazil. Liner Notes. Smithsonian Folkways Recordings, 1996.)
26 Dec 2013
Tony Brown's Journal, Afro Brazil
directed by Bob Morris, fl. 1972-2000; produced by James Cannady, fl. 1983-2004, Sheryl J. Cannady, fl. 1985-2012 and Tony Brown, 1933-; interview by Tony Brown, 1933-, in Tony Brown's Journal (New York, NY: Tony Brown Productions, 1994), 26 mins  
Watch! An on-the-ground look at what's it's like to be Black in Brazil today. This documentary provides a larger social, cultural and historical context for the sounds of Afro-Brazilian music genres and influences in contemporary Brazil.
26 Dec 2013
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