Playlist:  Indigenous Panpipes in Peru (Introduction to World Music: South America) by Jenna Makowski, Alexander Street Press

Bamboo panpipes, called sikus, are a predominate instrument in Andean Peru, especially among the Quechua and Aymara indigenous groups. Traditionally played in ensembles of a dozen or more people, the style of playing, where each musician plays in hocket, or interlocking form, with another is a reflection of broader worldviews built on dualism and interconnectivity. The panpipes made their way into genres of dance music called huayno during the early colonial period and today are often presented on the international world music stage.
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Los Jilacatas: Panpipes from Chimo
produced by John Cohen, 1932-; in Mountain Music of Peru, Vol. 2 (Smithsonian Folkways Recordings, 1994), 3 mins  
Panpipe orchestra at rehearsal in Chucuito. The style of melody and playing resembles sikumoreno panpipe style from the Aymara, south of the lake. This is not a complete ensemble-it is without the snare drum. You can clearly hear how the musicians divide the melody between different instruments, playing in hocket. (Mountain Music of Peru, Vol. 2. Liner Notes. Smithsonian Folkways Recordings, 1994.)
02:48
26 Dec 2013
Centro Social Conima, 1986: Manuelita
produced by John Cohen, 1932-; in Mountain Music of Peru, Vol. 2 (Smithsonian Folkways Recordings, 1994), 5 mins  
Centro Social Conima performing a lento sikuri piece known as Manuelita. This recording was made in a rehearsal in one of the musicians' homes in Lima. Twenty siku players and three drums were used. Centro Social Conimo is a regional club consisting of families from the District of Conima who have settled in Lima. The club serves as a basis of a self-help social network and reconstructed community in the city. Especially since the 1940s, there has been a tremendous flood of migration from the highlands to the national capital. The clubs work to provide a sense of community and logistical help for immigrants who often face discrimination and prejudice. Panpipe ensembles are part of the club's activities. Mountain Music of Peru, Vol. 2. Liner Notes. Smithsonian Folkways Recordings, 1994.)
04:48
26 Dec 2013
Trova de Amor - Huayno Ayacuchano
produced by Pablo Cárcamo, 1951-; performed by Alex Gallegos Torre, Elmer Espinoza Valencia, fl. 1992, Edward Soto Bazań, Robert Montoro Ortiz and Pablo Cárcamo, 1951-; in Alpamayo: America Nuestra Esperanza (ARC Music Productions, 1995), 5 mins  
The Huayno is a genre of Peruvian Andean music born of the blending of indigenous instruments such as the panpipes with Spanish lutes, guitars, mandolins and melodies. It is practiced by a variety of ethnic groups, including the Quechua, Aymara and Mestiszo communities. Listen for the panpipe, or siku, ensemble in the harmonic accompaniment to this track. (Alpamayo: America Nuestra Esperanza. Liner Notes. American Record Corporation, 1995.)
04:32
26 Dec 2013
Munahuanqui (Quechua Huayno)
produced by Harry Tschopik, 1915-1956; in Music of Peru (Folkways Records, 1950), 2 mins  
The Huayno is the principle social dance of the Quechua and Aymara Indians, and is often associated with church fiestas. Although the huayno was danced by the Aymara of the Lake Titicaca region as early as the beginning of the 17th century, the origin of this style in its present form is obscure. It is the belief of most authorities, however, that it is a colonial adaptation of the ancient Quechua dance, kaswa, described for the Incas of the conquest period. (Music of Peru. Liner Notes. Folkways Recordings, 1950.)
01:57
26 Dec 2013
Disappearing World, The Quechua
directed by Carlos Pasini Hansen, fl. 1994; produced by Carlos Pasini Hansen, fl. 1994, in Disappearing World (London, England: Royal Anthropological Institute, 1974), 52 mins  
Watch! This film is set in a community of peasant agriculturalists 2 1/4 miles above sea level in the southern Peruvian Andes. Concentrating on a single family, the film explores aspects of religious and secular life. The first part of the film shows a pilgrimage to a Christian sanctuary situated close to the residence of the most powerful of the Central Andean mountain spirits (Apus) illustrating the syncretism of Catholic and pre-Hispanic local religious traditions. In the second part of the film we see a fertility rite for sheep, and the attempts of certain members of the community to procure government assistance for a motor road to the village which would link them more closely with the rest of Peruvian society. This film portrays the Quechua of the village of Camahuara as being in a sense sealed off from the rest of the world, but it also shows how their way of life is integrated with the Peruvian economy. It has been criticised for emphasising that the desire for change is coming from inside the traditional society rather than being forced on it from without.
52:15
26 Dec 2013
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