Playlist:  The Crusades by Kathleen Saylor, Alexander Street Press

The Crusades were military campaigns sanctioned by the Catholic Church in the Middle Ages. In 1095 Byzantine Emperor Alexios I, in Constantinople, sent an ambassador to Pope Urban II in Italy pleading for military help against the growing Turkish threat. The Pope responded promptly by calling Catholic soldiers to join the First Crusade. The immediate goal was to guarantee pilgrims access to the holy sites in the Holy Land under Muslim control. His long-range goal was to reunite the Eastern and Western branches of Christendom after their split in 1054 with the pope as head of the united Church. A complex 200-year struggle ensued.
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Format
Artwork
Title
Notes
Duration / Pages
Date added
 
The Crusades
produced by Christopher Cassel, 1977-; in The Dark Ages (New York, NY: A&E Television Networks, 2007, first release 2007), 7 mins  
Discussion on the Crusades and their origins.
07:22
10 Nov 2015
The Normans, Episode 3, Normans of the South
directed by Charles Colville, 1959-, in The Normans, Episode 3 (London, England: BBC Worldwide, 2010), 52 mins  
Professor Robert Bartlett explores the impact of the Normans on southern Europe and the Middle East. The Normans spread south in the 11th century, winning control of southern Italy and the island of Sicily. There they created their most prosperous kingdom, where Christianity and Islam co-existed in relative harmony and mutual tolerance. It became a great centre of medieval culture and learning. But events in the Middle East provoked the more aggressive side of the Norman character. In 1095, the Normans enthusiastically answered the Pope's call for holy war against Islam and joined the first crusade. They lay siege to Jerusalem and eventually helped win back the holy city from the Muslims. This bloody conquest left a deep rift between Christianity and Islam which is still being felt to this day.
52:00
10 Nov 2015
Clip
The First Crusade (1095 AD)
directed by Tom Sheahan, fl. 1999; produced by Tom Sheahan, fl. 1999, British Broadcasting Corporation, in Jerusalem: The Making of a Holy City, Episode 2 (London, England: BBC Worldwide, 2011), 51 mins  
In 1095, Pope Urban II created a new Christian Concept: Holy War for Jerusalem. In return for the remission of sins and salvation, Christians would conquer Jerusalem and cleanse the Holy sites of the 'vile' infidel.
08:28
17 Dec 2015
The Crusades
produced by Nicholas Barton; in Europe Recovers, World: A Television History, 9 (Falls Church, VA: Landmark Media, 1985), 4 mins  
In 1095, an appeal for aid arrived in the west from the beleaguered Byzantine empire. The response of ordinary Christians in the west was remarkable and never to be repeated. Tens of thousands set out by land and sea for the holy land.
04:09
10 Nov 2015
Clip
Saladin, the Holy Warrior (1174 AD)
directed by Tom Sheahan, fl. 1999; produced by Tom Sheahan, fl. 1999, British Broadcasting Corporation, in Jerusalem: The Making of a Holy City, Episode 2 (London, England: BBC Worldwide, 2011), 51 mins  
Even as the Crusader kingdom enjoyed its heyday, Islam resolved to win back the Holy City. The man who would launch this new Holy War was Saladin. Saladin was a remarkably gifted statesman, beloved by his princes and generals, whom he alone could bind together.
11:39
17 Dec 2015
Innocent III proclaims the first Crusade in Christian lands - "Nous exhortons" – Recited text
composed by Traditional; performed by Jordi Savall; in The Forgotten Kingdom (Alia Vox, 2010), 3 mins  
Pope Innocent III decreed the Fourth Crusade of 1198, intended to recapture the Holy Land.
03:00
17 Dec 2015
Teutonic Knights
directed by Christophe Talczewski (Paris, Ile-de-France: Point du Jour International, 2011), 1 hour  
Considered by some as blood-thirsty, by others as a civilising and beneficial force, the history of the Order has often served to re-write the complex history of Central Europe. In 19th century Germany, the Order of the Teutonic Knights had a romantic image and Prussia, their territory, had the allure of the land of heroes. So much so, that Hitler had been tempted to use their 'image' as the symbol of national identity: their discipline and fighting spirit as the model for a conquerors’ mentality. But who really were the Teutonic Knights and what was their true role in history? This docudrama, filmed with considerable means, sheds a new light on the fate of the order in the 13th and 14th century, taking us from the Holy Land to the Baltic Sea - along the fortresses and palaces they built. The battle of Grunwald/Tannenberg is at the centre of the story as it represents both the height of the knights’ power and the start of their decline.
01:00:14
26 Feb 2015
Clip
Frederick II (1220 AD)
directed by Tom Sheahan, fl. 1999; produced by Tom Sheahan, fl. 1999, British Broadcasting Corporation, in Jerusalem: The Making of a Holy City, Episode 2 (London, England: BBC Worldwide, 2011), 51 mins  
Saladin's dynasty had become weakened by family feuds, when a new and unorthodox crusader arrived on a very different kind of crusade. Frederick II was King of Sicily, Holy Roman Emperor, and the most powerful monarch in Europe.
04:33
17 Dec 2015
The Crusades: Behind the Scenes
produced by Sean Dunne, fl. 2005 (New York, NY: A&E Television Networks, 2005, originally published 2005), 24 mins  
Computer animation and dramatizations are used to study the first three crusades, the Muslim and Christian struggle for control over Jerusalem.
24:16
26 Feb 2015
Clip
The Tartars (1244 AD)
directed by Tom Sheahan, fl. 1999; produced by Tom Sheahan, fl. 1999, British Broadcasting Corporation, in Jerusalem: The Making of a Holy City, Episode 2 (London, England: BBC Worldwide, 2011), 51 mins  
Without its walls, Jerusalem was insecure. Peace didn't last, and the city was tossed back and forth between the two warring sides. In 1244, Jerusalem was invaded by 10000 Tartar mercenaries who decimated the city.
03:14
17 Dec 2015
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