Description: During the 1950s, to address concerns over the nuclear capabilities of the Soviet Union, the U.S. created a high-altitude spy plane, the U-2, to secretly assess developments in the Soviet nuclear program. On May 1, 1960, the Soviet Union’s air defenses shot down a U-2 plane that had been taking photographs and performing aerial reconnaissance inside Soviet territory. Pilot Francis Gary Powers parachuted into Soviet hands. The administration of U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower announced that the plane was for weather research, but Nikita Khrushchev, the First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, revealed evidence to the contrary. The incident, which occurred before a scheduled opening of an east-west summit in Paris, France, that same month, resulted in Khrushchev adjourning from the summit after Eisenhower refused to issue a formal apology. U.S.-Soviet relations, already strained by the ongoing Cold War, suffered from the incident. Through National Archives and Records Administration primary source materials gathered from the General Records of the Department of State, this collection will help researchers gain insights into the effect of this incident on Cold War relations between the U.S. and the Soviet Union.