Motherhood and the Obligations of Citizenship during World War II: US Debates over Conscripting Women Civilians
This document project, by David Dawson and Rebecca Jo Plant, considers the debate during World War II over whether women should be conscripted to fill civilian jobs in order to meet the nation’s severe labor shortage. Although business leaders, some mainstream women's organizations, and progressive women like Eleanor Roosevelt supported legislation to this effect, the bill ultimately failed in the face of angry condemnation from across the political spectrum. The project features documents that reveal the views of both proponents and detractors of the bill, with a particular focus on a women’s coalition of self-proclaimed patriots that denounced conscripting members of their sex as a subversive attack on the American home. In this video, David Dawson introduces the project.
Between the mid-1940s and the mid-1960s, Congress debated and initiated "termination" legislation, policies designed to dissolve the sovereign relationships that Native nations have with the United States and assimilate Native people into the American polity solely as American citizens. This new document project by Mary Klann explores the ways in which legislators employed gendered definitions of citizenship and dependency in shaping these policies and Native women's resistance to termination. Native women participated in pan-Indian organizations and led their individual tribes to directly challenge termination policies and the ideologies behind them.
This new document project, created by Jamie Wagman for the March 2020 issue, consists of oral history interviews, including both audio files and transcripts, of twenty transgender women and men who grew up or currently live in the Midwest, many in small towns and rural areas. The interviewees’ narratives, as Wagman writes, show that “there is no singular way of coming out or transitioning as transgender, just as there is no singular formula for finding support and community.
Women were the dominant force in U.S. Protestant overseas missions in the 19th and early 20th centuries, and the Asia-Pacific world was the main theater for their operation. This project explores the missionary tenure of Elizabeth Poorbaugh in Japan from 1886 to 1893. Although she successfully established a girls’ school in Sendai relying on the conventional belief in American superiority, Poorbaugh was seriously challenged not only by Japanese male pastors and leaders but also by her assertive students in the social climate of rising nationalism in the 1890s.
Progressive Reformers, the Russian Revolution, and the Politics of Friendship: American Women's Ties to Revolutionary Catherine Breshkovsky
Prior to the Bolshevik Revolution in late 1917, the Russian revolutionary movement enjoyed broad support among American progressives in the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries. The arrival of Catherine Breshkovsky, a well-educated, noble-blooded revolutionary, further solidified these ties between Russian and American reform in 1904. While in America, she befriended many American women, especially suffragists and settlement house workers, who were united by their universalist ideas of human progress. These connections, however, were severely undermined by the realities of war and nationalism.
This five-volume biographical dictionary, the first large-scale scholarly work in its field, grew out of a commitment to women's history which Radcliffe College originally undertook in 1943. That year the suffrage leader Maud Wood Park, a Radcliffe graduate of 1898, gave the college her woman's rights collection, including her own papers, those of many co-workers, and material she had gathered on the whole history of the woman's rights movement. Two Harvard historians, W. K. Jordan, then president of Radcliffe, and Arthur M. Schlesinger, a member of the college Council, Radcliffe's top governing board, saw the gift as an opportunity for a women's college to make a special contribution to scholarship. Under their guidance the collection by 1950 had grown into the Women's Archives, a research library for the study not merely of the suffrage movement but of all phases of women's activity in the American past.