Browse Social Movements

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Starts with T|W
Name Description Founding year Related works
Temperance Movement The movement to limit the consumption of alcohol began around 1800, when alcohol consumption was at an all-time high in the United States. Sobriety became a value associated with modernizing trends that included sel... The movement to limit the consumption of alcohol began around 1800, when alcohol consumption was at an all-time high in the United States. Sobriety became a value associated with modernizing trends that included self control and individualism, and was supported by working-class as well as middle-class Protestants. Dominated by men before 1860, the temperance movement nevertheless offered women like Elizabeth Cady Stanton a forum where they developed public speaking skills. In the depression winter of 1873-74, the women’s temperance movement exploded in Ohio with public demonstrations in which women protested the effects of men’s alchohol consumption on women and families. Organized by the Woman’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU), the women’s temperance movement worked closely with the woman suffrage movement and became the most important vehicle for the participation of both black and white women in public life between 1873 and 1900. Although WCTU membership remained high and their international efforts were notable after 1900, other women’s organizations emerged to shape women’s activism in the decades before 1920. The passage of the prohibition amendment to the U.S. constitution in 1919 was largely due to the efforts of men in the anti-saloon league, a much more conservative organization than the WCTU. Show more Show less 1800 1
Woman's Christian Temperance Union Founded in 1873, the Woman’s Christian Temperance Union quickly became the largest voluntary association in the United States. Working closely with the much-smaller woman suffrage movement, the WCTU endorsed woman... Founded in 1873, the Woman’s Christian Temperance Union quickly became the largest voluntary association in the United States. Working closely with the much-smaller woman suffrage movement, the WCTU endorsed woman suffrage in 1881, by which time it had become the most important vehicle for women’s participation in public life. Key to the WCTU’s prominence was Frances Willard’s leadership and her "Do Everything" policy, which enabled the Union to support a wide range of reform activities other than temperance, including prison reform, child welfare, women's employment, work among African Americans, public health, and woman suffrage. Show more Show less 1873 26