Browse Social Movements

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Name Description Founding year Related works
Charity Organization Society Founded in England in 1869, the Charity Organization Society movement began in the United States in New York the late 1870’s. Josephine Shaw Lowell, a prominent theoretician and organizer of the movement, sought t... Founded in England in 1869, the Charity Organization Society movement began in the United States in New York the late 1870’s. Josephine Shaw Lowell, a prominent theoretician and organizer of the movement, sought to rationalize charitable support for poor families by consolidating charitable institutions and promoting scientific methods. Continuing antebellum "friendly visiting" by middle-class women volunteers, the COS was an early, punitive form of social work. During the catastrophic depression of 1893 Josephine Shaw Lowell resigned from the COS and began to work with the New York Consumers’ League to promote minimum wages for low-paid workers, believing that higher wages was the best cure for poverty. The growth of social work after 1900 made the COS a less prominent institution. Show more Show less 1877 1
Civil Rights Movement The struggle for full citizenship rights began during Reconstruction following the Civil War, but most scholars associate the origin of the modern Civil Rights Movement with the founding of the National Association... The struggle for full citizenship rights began during Reconstruction following the Civil War, but most scholars associate the origin of the modern Civil Rights Movement with the founding of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People in 1909. African-American and white women were active in the early years of the NAACP and in successive efforts to end segregation in public transportation, public accommodations, and education. Voting rights were important during Reconstruction and then once again beginning in the 1960s. Show more Show less 1909 25
Colorado Woman Suffrage Association This major woman suffrage organization in Colorado was affiliated with the American Woman Suffrage Association (see above). The ability of the Association to forge a broad suffrage coalition, drawing support from th... This major woman suffrage organization in Colorado was affiliated with the American Woman Suffrage Association (see above). The ability of the Association to forge a broad suffrage coalition, drawing support from the Woman's Christian Temperance Union, farmers' organizations, and labor organizations accounts for its success in winning woman's suffrage in its second referendum campaign in 1893. Show more Show less 1876 2
Colored Woman's League Part of a larger movement of black women’s clubs aimed at improving the living conditions and status of African Americans, the Colored Woman’s League (CWL) was founded in 1892 with Hallie Q. Brown as its Secreta... Part of a larger movement of black women’s clubs aimed at improving the living conditions and status of African Americans, the Colored Woman’s League (CWL) was founded in 1892 with Hallie Q. Brown as its Secretary. The CWL participated in a series of national conventions that led to the founding of the National Association of Colored Women in 1896. Show more Show less 1892 6
Commission on Interracial Cooperation Founded in 1918, the Commission on Interracial Cooperation (CIC), based in Atlanta, publicly opposed lynching and the Ku Klux Klan and sought to foster a new positive image of African Americans. The successful work... Founded in 1918, the Commission on Interracial Cooperation (CIC), based in Atlanta, publicly opposed lynching and the Ku Klux Klan and sought to foster a new positive image of African Americans. The successful work of women within the CIC and the overly-cautious leadership of white men within the Commission led Jessie Daniel Ames in November 1930 to form the Association of Southern Women to Prevent Lynching. In 1944, the CIC merged with the Southern Regional Council. Show more Show less 1918 1
Congressional Union for Woman Suffrage Alice Paul and others founded the Congressional Union of Woman Suffrage (CUWS) in 1913 as an American version of the militant British Women’s Social and Political Union. CUWS members engaged in civil disobedience,... Alice Paul and others founded the Congressional Union of Woman Suffrage (CUWS) in 1913 as an American version of the militant British Women’s Social and Political Union. CUWS members engaged in civil disobedience, chaining themselves to the White House fence and going on hunger strikes in jail, which catapulted them to prominence within the suffrage movement. In 1916 Paul and her CUWS allies launched the National Woman's Party (NWP). Show more Show less 1913 2