Browse Social Movements

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Name Description Founding year Related works
Edenton Ladies' Patriotic Guild On October 25, 1774, fifty-one women from prominent families in Edenton, North Carolina, created the Edenton Ladies' Patriotic Guild. Comprising one of the earliest instances of organized political activity by women... On October 25, 1774, fifty-one women from prominent families in Edenton, North Carolina, created the Edenton Ladies' Patriotic Guild. Comprising one of the earliest instances of organized political activity by women in the American colonies, Guild members signed a boycott resolution, which they published with their names in a newspaper. Show more Show less 1774 1
Eight-Hour Day Movement Long a goal of labor activists and the issue around which numerous workers’ organizations had formed, the demand for an eight-hour work day increased in the 1880s and 1890s. Both men and women labor activists embr... Long a goal of labor activists and the issue around which numerous workers’ organizations had formed, the demand for an eight-hour work day increased in the 1880s and 1890s. Both men and women labor activists embraced the demand for an eight-hour day in manufacturing industries where the hours of labor commonly exceeded twelve. The campaign for an eight hour day was fought in two ways: unions sought contracts with employers and unions and reformers demanded workplace legislation that would limit working hours. In the 1880s the Knights of Labor were prominent in the movement for an eight-hour day. Show more Show less 1880 5
Equal Rights Amendment Movement After the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment in 1920, Alice Paul and the National Woman’s Party conceived of a plan for a new amendment to promote equal rights for women more generally. Written in 1921, and first... After the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment in 1920, Alice Paul and the National Woman’s Party conceived of a plan for a new amendment to promote equal rights for women more generally. Written in 1921, and first introduced into Congress in 1923, it finally passed the House and Senate in 1972. Professional women’s organizations predominated in the early movement as women’s labor interests opposed the ERA until the 1960s, viewing it as a threat to protective legislation for women. By the 1970s a broader coalition of women’s groups came to support the ERA in the changed economic and social climate. Show more Show less 1920 17