Browse Social Movements

Displaying 1 - 15 of 15
Name Description Founding year Related works
National American Woman Suffrage Association In 1890 the National Woman Suffrage Association (NWSA), led by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony, joined Lucy Stone’s American Woman’s Suffrage Association (AWSA) to form the National American Woman Su... In 1890 the National Woman Suffrage Association (NWSA), led by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony, joined Lucy Stone’s American Woman’s Suffrage Association (AWSA) to form the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA). The suffrage movement had split in 1869 over the issue of black male suffrage in the Fifteenth Amendment. From 1890 to 1920 when woman suffrage was finally added to the U.S. Constitution, NAWSA was the dominant national suffrage organization. Show more Show less 1890 22
National Anti-Slavery Convention of American Women, 2nd : 1838 May 15-18 : Philadelphia, PA Held in the newly built Pennsylvania Hall, May 15-18, 1838. The Hall was burned down by a mob the night of May 17, and the final day of the Convention was held in the Cherry Street school. This was the first anti-sl... Held in the newly built Pennsylvania Hall, May 15-18, 1838. The Hall was burned down by a mob the night of May 17, and the final day of the Convention was held in the Cherry Street school. This was the first anti-slavery convention to have both men and women in the audience. President was Mary L. Parker, president of the Boston Female Anti-Slavery Society. Show more Show less 1838 4
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People In 1909 W.E.B. Du Bois, other participants in the Niagara Movement, women activists including Mary Church Terrell and Ida B. Wells-Barnett, and other African-American critics of Booker T. Washington united with whit... In 1909 W.E.B. Du Bois, other participants in the Niagara Movement, women activists including Mary Church Terrell and Ida B. Wells-Barnett, and other African-American critics of Booker T. Washington united with white supporters to form the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Still an important representative of African American interests, the NAACP has a long history of defending and expanding black civil rights. Show more Show less 1909 20
National Association of Colored Women In the 1890s amid increasing racial tensions a national club movement emerged among black women that led to the formation of the National Association of Colored Women (NACW) in Washington, D.C. in 1896. The first pr... In the 1890s amid increasing racial tensions a national club movement emerged among black women that led to the formation of the National Association of Colored Women (NACW) in Washington, D.C. in 1896. The first president of the NACW was Mary Church Terrell. "Lifting As We Climb" became the Association's motto, and members coordinated their efforts to improve the condition of African Americans in the United States. In 1915 more than 100,000 women were NACW members. The NACW is still active today working toward improving the lives of African American women and children. Show more Show less 1896 65
National Association Opposed to Woman Suffrage The National Association Opposed to Woman Suffrage (NAOWS) was founded in New York in 1911 to lobby against woman suffrage on the state and federal levels. Membership peaked between 1911 and 1916, when NAOWS claimed... The National Association Opposed to Woman Suffrage (NAOWS) was founded in New York in 1911 to lobby against woman suffrage on the state and federal levels. Membership peaked between 1911 and 1916, when NAOWS claimed a membership of 350,000. Beginning in 1916 the Association published a magazine, The Woman Patriot, to disseminate anti-suffrage views. Important leaders included Mrs. Alice Hay Wadsworth, Mrs. Robert Lansing, Margaret C. Robinson and Ann Squire. Show more Show less 1911 3
National Birth Control League The National Birth Control League (NBCL) formed in 1915 under the leadership of Mary Ware Dennett, who lobbied for repeal of federal and state statutes that defined birth control as "obscene." By 1919, the National... The National Birth Control League (NBCL) formed in 1915 under the leadership of Mary Ware Dennett, who lobbied for repeal of federal and state statutes that defined birth control as "obscene." By 1919, the National Birth Control League had disbanded due to financial difficulties and Dennett's decision to found the Voluntary Parenthood League. Show more Show less 1915 1
National Congress of Mothers Founded by Alice McLellan Birney in 1897, the National Congress of Mothers was the forerunner of the National Congress of Parents and Teachers. The Congress mobilized thousands of largely white, middle-class women o... Founded by Alice McLellan Birney in 1897, the National Congress of Mothers was the forerunner of the National Congress of Parents and Teachers. The Congress mobilized thousands of largely white, middle-class women on behalf of child-saving activism in the early years of the twentieth century, most notably support for mothers’ pensions. In 1924 the Congress became the National Congress of Parents and Teachers in an effort to distance itself from accusations of radical politics. Inspired by such leaders as Hannah Schoff, Congress activists also lobbied for the creation of nationwide juvenile courts in the early twentieth century. Show more Show less 1897 7
National Council of Women of the United States The National Council of Women (NCW) was founded in 1888 as the national section of the International Council of Women. The NCW aimed to "promote the welfare of all women of the country" and became an umbrella organi... The National Council of Women (NCW) was founded in 1888 as the national section of the International Council of Women. The NCW aimed to "promote the welfare of all women of the country" and became an umbrella organization for numerous women’s organizations including the American Association of University Women and the Woman’s Christian Temperance Union. Show more Show less 1888 9
National League of Women Voters The League of Women Voters (LWV) is a United States nonpartisan organization that formed out of the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) in 1920. In addition to a domestic focus on voter education, t... The League of Women Voters (LWV) is a United States nonpartisan organization that formed out of the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) in 1920. In addition to a domestic focus on voter education, the LWV developed international committees to address foreign affairs. In its early years, the LWV established the Department of International Cooperation to Prevent War, which focused on peace work. In 1947 it set up the Carrie Chapman Catt Memorial Fund to provide civic education to women whose countries were transitioning to democratic governments. The name of the Memorial Fund changed to the Overseas Education Fund (OEF) in 1961 and OEF International in 1986. This digital archive includes selected international material from the Department of International Cooperation in the 1920s and 1930s and OEF International material from the 1940s to the 1990s. Show more Show less 1919 647
National Organization for Women The National Organization for Women was formed in 1966 by a group of women frustrated with the failure of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission to enforce the 1964 Civil Rights Act’s prohibition of sex discr... The National Organization for Women was formed in 1966 by a group of women frustrated with the failure of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission to enforce the 1964 Civil Rights Act’s prohibition of sex discrimination. NOW was broadly conceived as a feminist organization dedicated to addressing sex and gender discrimination. Through lobbying, legal action, picketing, demonstrations, and marches, NOW supported a variety of causes, including the passage of the Equal Rights Amendment, the repeal of restrictive abortion laws, publicly funded child care, the end of sex discrimination in employment, equal treatment of women and men in public accommodations, and lesbian rights. Show more Show less 1966 17
National Woman Suffrage Association Founded by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony after the demise of the American Equal Rights Association, this woman suffrage organization supported a wide range of women's rights issues. Led by an all-women... Founded by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony after the demise of the American Equal Rights Association, this woman suffrage organization supported a wide range of women's rights issues. Led by an all-women slate of officers, the Association promoted a conscious strategy of organizing women independently of male-dominated political parties. Competition between the National and the American Woman Suffrage Association (see above) divided the woman suffrage movement until the two organizations merged in 1890. Show more Show less 1869 10
National Woman's Party, US In 1916 Alice Paul, founder of the militant suffragist organization, the Congressional Union of Woman Suffrage (CUWS), mobilized her supporters to launch the National Woman's Party (NWP). The NWP used civil disobedi... In 1916 Alice Paul, founder of the militant suffragist organization, the Congressional Union of Woman Suffrage (CUWS), mobilized her supporters to launch the National Woman's Party (NWP). The NWP used civil disobedience tactics to promote the passage of the woman suffrage amendment. Paul’s strategies contributed to the passage of the federal Suffrage Amendment in 1919 and its ratification in 1920. After 1920 the NWP turned its attention to the passage of an Equal Rights Amendment (ERA). Show more Show less 1916 20
National Women's Conference : 1977 Nov. 18-21: Houston, TX Held in Houston in 1977, the National Women’s Conference was funded by Congress and supported by leaders within the Democratic and Republican parties. The wives of four presidents attended along with more than 20,... Held in Houston in 1977, the National Women’s Conference was funded by Congress and supported by leaders within the Democratic and Republican parties. The wives of four presidents attended along with more than 20,000 women, children, and men. Bella Abzug presided. The Houston conference marked a high point in the history of feminism during the second half of the twentieth century. State conventions preceded the national meeting, where delegates considered a "national plan" of legislation designed to improve women’s lives. Show more Show less 1977 4
New England Woman Suffrage Association Founded in 1868, the Association concentrated its focus exclusively on woman suffrage and contributed to the emergence of the American Woman Suffrage Association (see above) to channel women reformers' support for t... Founded in 1868, the Association concentrated its focus exclusively on woman suffrage and contributed to the emergence of the American Woman Suffrage Association (see above) to channel women reformers' support for the Fifteenth Amendment. Early leaders included Lucy Stone and Isabella Beecher Hooker. Show more Show less 1868 5
New York Female Moral Reform Society The New York Female Moral Reform Society, (founded in 1834 and renamed the American Female Moral Reform Society in 1839) and the Boston Female Moral Reform Society (founded in 1835 and renamed the New England Female... The New York Female Moral Reform Society, (founded in 1834 and renamed the American Female Moral Reform Society in 1839) and the Boston Female Moral Reform Society (founded in 1835 and renamed the New England Female Moral Reform Society in 1838) were umbrella organizations that brought together more than 50,000 members in 600 societies in New England, New York, Pennsylvania and Ohio. Part of the mobilization of women during the Second Great Awakening, moral reform societies worked in villages and cities to eliminate prostitution and other forms of sexual exploitation of women, including the sexual double standard. Expressing values associated with the demographic transition from high to low birth rates (1800-1900), moral reform encouraged women to control access to their bodies. The nation's first explicitly female social movement, moral reform offered many middle-class women their first opportunity to venture into the public arena and agitate for social change on behalf of women. Show more Show less 1834 1