Browse Social Movements

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Name Description Founding year Related works
United States. Children's Bureau The United States Children’s Bureau of the Department of Labor, a federal agency dedicated to monitoring and improving the lives of the nation’s children, was created in response to the urging of women reformers... The United States Children’s Bureau of the Department of Labor, a federal agency dedicated to monitoring and improving the lives of the nation’s children, was created in response to the urging of women reformers in 1912. Julia Lathrop, the first director, was followed by Grace Abbott in 1920. Bypassing male-dominated organizations such as the U.S. Public Health Service, the U.S. Children’s Bureau was the first governmental agency in the western world that was headed by women for women. Show more Show less 1912 17
United States. Women's Bureau The United States government created the Women's Bureau within the Department of Labor in 1920. While the Women's Bureau is concerned mostly with domestic issues, Women and Social Movements International includes do... The United States government created the Women's Bureau within the Department of Labor in 1920. While the Women's Bureau is concerned mostly with domestic issues, Women and Social Movements International includes documents published by the Women's Bureau regarding transnational and international aspects of women and policy, particularly material that engages discussions of the Western Hemisphere. Show more Show less 1920 10
Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League Jamaican-born Marcus Garvey founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association in 1914 to promote racial uplift and greater educational and industrial opportunities for Black people globally. Garvey’s Black natio... Jamaican-born Marcus Garvey founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association in 1914 to promote racial uplift and greater educational and industrial opportunities for Black people globally. Garvey’s Black nationalism promoted the establishment of a separate nation, the creation of educational institutions and better working conditions for blacks throughout the world. Though female "Garveyites" faced hierarchical limitations within the UNIA, they also fought to define their responsibilities as "New Negro Women" within the organization and the larger Black community. Between 1918 and 1933, the UNIA published The Negro World, which included women contributors, particularly in a section, "Our Women and What They Think," devoted to women’s issues. Show more Show less 1929 1
Utopian Socialist Communities The utopian Oneida Community survived in its original perfectionist form between 1848 and 1879. New Harmony in Indiana, the North American Phalanx in New Jersey and the Oneida Community in upstate New York were thre... The utopian Oneida Community survived in its original perfectionist form between 1848 and 1879. New Harmony in Indiana, the North American Phalanx in New Jersey and the Oneida Community in upstate New York were three of the most well-known nineteenth century utopian communities. Founders of these communities criticized private property and contemporary marriage practice and through their experimental communities intended to set an example to inspire wider social reform. Show more Show less 1820 3