Permissions for Primary Source Sets

  • For thumbnails in "Women and Antislavery," permission granted by The Library Company of Philadelphia.

  • For Equal Rights: Official Organ of the National Woman’s Party, permission granted by the Historic National Woman’s Party, Washington, D.C.

  • For publications by the League of Women Voters, permission granted by the National League of Women Voters, Washington, D.C.

  • For the transcription of interviews in “The Women’s History Movement,” permission granted by
    Lois Banner, University of Southern California
    Joan Jacobs Brumberg, Cornell University
    Mari Jo Buhle, Brown University
    William Chafe, Duke University
    Jane De Hart, University of California, Santa Barbara
    Thomas Dublin, State University of New York, Binghamton
    Ellen DuBois, University of California, Los Angeles
    Sara Evans, University of Minnesota
    Sherna Berger Gluck, Independent Scholar
    Deena Gonzalez, Gonzaga University
    Linda Gordon, New York University
    Nancy Hewitt, Rutgers University
    Helen Lefkowitz Horowitz, Smith College
    Heather Huyck, National Collaborative for Women’s History Sites/National Park Service
    Joan Jensen, New Mexico State University
    Linda Kerber, University of Iowa
    Alice Kessler-Harris, Columbia University
    Judith W. Leavitt, University of Wisconsin
    Ruth Rosen, University of California, Davis
    Leila Rupp, University of California, Santa Barbara
    Mary Ryan, Johns Hopkins University
    Anne Firor Scott, Duke University
    Kathryn Kish Sklar, State University of New York, Binghamton
    Carroll Smith-Rosenberg, University of Michigan
    Rosalyn Terborg-Penn, Morgan State University
    Laurel Thatcher Ulrich, Harvard University
    Susan Ware, Independent Scholar/Schlesinger Library

Permissions for Document Projects and Archives

Why Were Illinois Indian Women Attracted to Catholicism, 1665-1750?

  • Eileen Dugan
  • Illinois State Historical Society, Springfield, Illinois
  • Illinois State Library, Springfield, Illinois
  • University of Michigan Press
  • Randolph County Courthouse, Chester, Illinois
  • Peabody Museum, Harvard University

How Did Living in an Outpost of Empire Influence Perceptions of Women's Sexual, Marital, and Public Roles in Eighteenth-Century Colonial St. Louis?

  • Missouri Historical Society
  • The Center for History and New Media (George Mason University) and the American Social History Project (City University of New York)
  • Lovejoy Library, Southern Illinois University-Edwardsville, Edwardsville, Illinois

From Wollstonecraft to Mill: What British and European Ideas and Social Movements Influenced the Emergence of Feminism in the Atlantic World, 1792-1869?

  • Wisconsin Historical Society
  • Stanford University Press
  • The Warren J. Samuels Portrait Collection at Duke University
  • Religious Society of Friends, London
  • American Swedish Historical Museum, Philadelphia
  • Joseph W. Reed
  • Karen M. Offen
  • Susan Groag Bell
  • Bibliothèque Nationale de France, no. 78A 40464

How Did the Ladies Association of Philadelphia Force New Forms of Women's Activism during the American Revolution?

  • New-York Historical Society
    • Joseph Reed Papers
  • North Carolina Department of Cultural Resources
  • Haverford College Library
    • Edward Wanton Smith Collection
  • Library of Congress
    • Prints and Photographs Division
    • Manuscript Division
    • Rare Book and Special Collections Division
  • Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia
    • Wayne Papers
    • Kane Family Letters
    • Washington Manuscripts
    • Letters and Diaries to Rebecca Shoemaker and her daughters Anna and Margaret Rawle, 1780-1786

How Did Susanna Rowson and Other Reformers Promote Higher Education as an Antidote to Women's Sexual Vulnerability, 1780-1820?

  • The Lilly Library, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana
  • Mount Vernon Ladies' Association, Mount Vernon, Virginia
  • Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

How Did the Removal of the Cherokee Nation from Georgia Shape Women's Activism in the North, 1817-1838?

  • University of Oklahoma Press
  • Frank J. Boudinot
  • Oklahoma Historical Society, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma
  • Philip Schaff Library, Lancaster Theological Seminary
  • Yale University Library
    • Vaill Manuscripts, Indian Letters
  • Mrs. N. B. Moore
  • Wider Church Ministries of the United Church of Christ, Cleveland, Ohio
  • Houghton Library, Harvard University
    • American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions Papers
  • National Archives, Washington, D.C.
  • Wisconsin Historical Society, Madison
  • Connecticut Historical Society, Hartford

How Did Women's Antislavery Fiction Contribute to Debates about Gender, Slavery, and Abolition, 1828-1856?

  • The Library Company, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
  • The Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.
  • The Pennsylvania State University Library, State College, Pennsylvania

How Did Oberlin Women Students Draw on their College Experience to Participate in Antebellum Social Movements, 1831-1861?

  • William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan
  • Oberlin College Archives
  • J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles, California

How Did Local Antislavery Women Form National Networks in the Antebellum United States?

  • Kent State University Libraries and Media Services, Kent, Ohio
  • Friends Historical Library, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, Pennsylvania
  • Haverford College Library, Haverford, Pennsylvania
  • Massachusetts Historical Society, Boston, Massachusetts
  • The Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
  • The Library Company of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
  • The Phillips Library, Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, Massachusetts
  • The Rhode Island Historical Society, Providence, Rhode Island
  • Trustees of the Boston Public Library, Boston, Massachusetts

How Did Sarah Bagley Contribute to the Ten-Hour Movement in Lowell and How Did Her Labor Activism Flow into Other Reform Movements, 1836-1870?

  • Center for Lowell History, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, Mass.
  • Thomas Dublin
  • American Museum of Textile History, Lowell, Mass.
  • Baker Library, Harvard Business School, Boston, Mass.
    • R. G. Dun & Co. Collection
  • Lowell Historical Society, Lowell, Mass.
  • Massachusetts State Archives, Boston, Mass.
  • John Hay Library, Brown University, Providence, R.I.
  • National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.
  • Ohio Historical Society, Columbus, Oh.
    • Lilly Martin Spencer Family Papers

How Did Abolitionist Women and Their Slaveholding Relatives Negotiate Their Conflict over the Issue of Slavery?

  • Sophia Smith Collection, Smith College
    • Garrison Family Papers
  • Special Collections, Syracuse University
    • Osborne Family Papers
  • New York State Historical Association
  • James D. Livingston

What Was the Appeal of Moral Reform to Antebellum Northern Women?

  • No copyrighted material employed

How Did Diverse Activists Shape the Nineteenth-Century Dress Reform Movement?

  • Rare Book, Manuscript, and Special Collections Library, Duke University

How Did Lucretia Mott's Activism between 1840 and 1860 Combine her Commitments to Antislavery and Women's Rights?

  • Library of Congress
    • Mott CollectionBlackwell Family Papers
  • Friends Historical Library, Swarthmore College
    • Mott Collection
  • Nantucket (Mass.) Historical Society
    • Mott Family Papers
  • Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Columbia University
    • Sydney Howard Gay Papers
  • Rare Books and Manuscripts, Boston Public Library
  • Sophia Smith Collection, Smith College, Northampton, Mass.
    • Garrison Family Papers

Were the Social Practices Associated with Bible Communism Liberating or Oppressive for the Women of the Oneida Community?

  • Oneida Community Collection, Syracuse University Library Special Collections
  • Oneida Community Mansion House
  • Syracuse University Press
  • Jane K. Rich

How Did an International Agenda Shape the American Women’s Rights Movement, 1840-1869?

  • Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.
  • Massachusetts Historical Society, Boston, Mass.
  • Wisconsin Historical Society, Madison, Wisc.

How Did Antislavery Women Use Portraits to Represent Themselves in the Transatlantic Antislavery Movement?

  • Boston Public Library, Boston, Mass.
    • Antislavery CollectionPrint Department
  • Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections, Cornell University Library, Ithaca, N.Y.
  • Friends Historical Library, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, Penn.
  • Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.
    • Manuscripts DivisionPrints and Photographs Division
  • Library of the Religious Society of Friends, London, England
  • Massachusetts Historical Society, Boston, Mass.
  • Salem State University Archives, Salem, Mass.
  • Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America, Radcliffe Institute, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.
  • Smithsonian National Portrait Gallery, Washington, D.C.
  • The British Museum, London, England
  • The Wedgwood Museum, Barlaston, Stoke-on-Trent, England
  • [UK] National Portrait Gallery, London, England

How do Contemporary Newspaper Accounts of the 1850 Worcester Woman's Rights Convention Enhance Our Understanding of the Issues Debated at That Meeting?

  • Library of Congress

Why Did Some Men Support the Women's Rights Movement in the 1850s, and How Did Their Ideas Compare to those of Women in the Movement?

  • Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

How Did Women Sculptors Contribute to and Draw Support from the Antislavery and Woman's Rights Movements, 1855-1875?

  • Boston Public Library, Boston, Massachusetts
  • Howard University Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.
  • Museum of African American History, Boston, Massachusetts
  • New York Public Library, Astor, Lenox and Tilden Found
  • Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, D.C.
  • Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art, Hartford, Connecticut
  • Wellesley College Archives, Margaret Clapp Library, Wellesley, Massachusetts

How Did Northern White Women Participate in the Bleeding Kansas Conflict of the 1850s?

  • Kansas State Historical Society, Topeka, Kansas

How Did Gender and Family Divisions among Shoeworkers Shape the 1860 New England Strike?

  • Phillips Library, Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, Mass.
  • Haverhill Public Library, Massachusetts

How Did White Women Aid Former Slaves during and after the Civil War and What Obstacles Did They Face?

  • Columbia University, Rare Book and Manuscript Library, New York, N.Y.
    • Josephine White Griffing papers
  • Friends of Mount Hope Cemetery, Rochester, N.Y.
  • Irving B. Holley
  • National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.
    • Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, RG 105Records of the House of Representatives, RG 233
  • New England Quarterly, for permission to reprint I. B. Holley, Jr., "Schooling Freedmen's Children," New England Quarterly, 74:3 (September 2001): 478-94.

How Did Women Participate in the Underground Railroad?

  • Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.
  • New-York Historical Society, New York, N.Y.
  • Cayuga Historical Society, Auburn, N.Y.
  • Cayuga Museum, Aurora, N.Y.

Why Did Colorado Suffragists Succeed in Winning the Right to Vote in 1893 and Not in 1877?

  • The Denver Public Library, Denver, Colorado
    • Western History Collection

How Did the Reform Agenda of the Minnesota Woman's Christian Temperance Union Change, 1878-1917?

  • Photographs from Bessie Lathe Scovell, compiler, A Brief History of the Minnesota Woman's Christian Temperance Union (St. Paul, 1939). Courtesy, Minnesota Woman's Christian Temperance Union, Wannaska, Minnesota

How Did Clara Foltz's Experiences as a Woman Lawyer and Suffragist Influence Her Conception of a Public Defender for Those Accused of Crime, 1878-1913?

  • American Criminal Law Review
  • Barbara Allen Babcock
  • Regional History Collection, Doheny Memorial Library, University of Southern California

How Did American and Japanese Gender Hierarchies Shape Japanese Women's Participation in the Transnational WCTU Movement in the 1880s?

  • Columbia University Press, New York, N.Y.
  • Archives of the Reformed Church in America, New Brunswick, N.J.

Why Did African-American Women Join the Woman's Christian Temperance Union between 1880 and 1900?

  • The photograph of Catherine Impey appears courtesy of Vron Ware, New Haven, Conn.
  • The photograph of Lucy Thurman appears courtesy of the National Association of Colored Women's Clubs, Washington, D.C.
  • The photograph of Amanda Berry Smith appears courtesy of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union
  • The photograph of the British Temperance Flyer appears courtesy of Olwen Niessen of Waterloo, Ontario
  • Library of Congress
    • Frederick Douglass Papers
  • Frances E. Willard Memorial Library, Evanston, Ill.
  • Indiana University Press
  • Woman's Christian Temperance Union

How Did a Multi-Racial Movement Develop in the YWCA in Baltimore, 1883-1926?

  • Adrienne Lash Jones
  • YWCA of the Greater Baltimore Area, Inc

How Did Gender and Class Shape the Age of Consent Campaign Within the Social Purity Movement, 1886-1914?

  • National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.
    • Records of the House of Representatives

What were the Origins of International Women's Day?, 1886-1920?

  • Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y.
  • Socialist Party USA

U.S. Empire and American Women Missionaries in Japan: Lizzie Poorbaugh and Japanese School Girls

  • Evangelical and Reformed Historical Society, Lancaster, Penn.
  • Kawasaki City Museum, Kawasaki, Japan
  • Miyagi Gakuin Educational Corporation, Sendai, Japan
  • Nakamuraya Company, Tokyo, Japan
  • Presbyterian Historical Society, Philadelphia, Penn.

How Did Changes in the Built Environment at Hull-House Reflect the Settlement's Interaction with Its Neighbors, 1889-1912?

  • Urban Experience in Chicago: Hull-House and Its Neighborhoods, 1889-1963, a history website of the Jane Addams Hull-House Museum, University of Illinois at Chicago. Rima Lunin Schultz, Editor
  • Jane Addams Memorial Collection, Special Collections, The University Library, University of Illinois at Chicago
  • University of Wisconsin Press
  • Ellen Skerrett
  • Swarthmore College Peace Collection.
    • Jane Addams Papers
  • Wisconsin Historical Society, Madison, Wisc.
    • Nettie Fowler McCormick Papers
    • Henry Demarest Lloyd Papers
    • Papers of the Women's Trade Union League and Its Principal Leaders
  • The New York Public Library, Astor, Lenox and Tilden Foundations
    • Nicholas Kelley Papers, Manuscripts and Archives Division

How Did Victoria Earle Matthews's Life Reflect the Sometimes Conflicting Attitudes of Black Self-Help and Black Political Activism?

  • University of Delaware Library, Special Collections
  • Library of Congress, Manuscript Division

How Did White Women Reformers with the Southern Utes Respond to Gendered Assimilationist Indian Policies?

  • The Newberry Library, Chicago
    • John Howard Payne Papers
  • University of Colorado Library, Boulder
    • Colorado WCTU collection
  • Colorado Federation of Women's Clubs
  • National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.
    • Record Group 75, Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairsbr> ecords of the U.S. Senate
  • National Archives and Records Administration, Rocky Mountain Region, Denver, Colo.
    • Records of the Consolidated Ute Administration

How Did Black and White Southern Women Campaign to End Lynching, 1890-1942?

  • Atlanta University Center, Robert W. Woodruff Library, Atlanta, Georgia
  • Southern Regional Conference, Atlanta, Georgia
  • Tampa Tribune Archives

How Did African-American Women Define Their Citizenship at the Chicago World's Fair in 1893?

  • No copyrighted material employed

How Did Florence Kelley's Campaign against Sweatshops in Chicago in the 1890s Expand Government Responsibility for Industrial Working Conditions?

  • Illinois State Archives
  • Library of Congress
    • Prints and Photographs Division
  • University of Illinois at Chicago, Special Collections, University Library
    • Jane Addams Memorial Collection

How Did the First Jewish Women's Movement Draw on Progressive Women's Activism and Jewish Traditions, 1893-1936?

  • Bloch Publishing Company
  • Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.
    • Maud Nathan Papers
  • Brandeis University Special Collections, Waltham, Mass.
    • Rose Jacobs Papers
  • Melvin Henriksen
  • American Jewish Archives, Cincinnati, Oh.
  • National Council of Jewish Women

How Did the Kindergarten Movement Provide Women with Opportunities for Professional Development and Social Activism in the United States and Internationally?

  • The Filson Historical Society
  • Missouri History Museum
  • Special Collections, University of Maryland Libraries
  • Teachers College Press
  • Watertown (WI) Historical Society
  • Wheelock College Library

What Gender Perspectives Shaped the Emergence of the National Association of Colored Women, 1895-1920?

  • Atlanta University Center, Robert W. Woodruff Library, Atlanta, Georgia
  • Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.
    • Mary Church Terrell Papers

How Did Women's War Relief in the Spanish-American War Alter Traditions of Female Benevolence and Pave the Way for Women's Formal Military Service?

  • National Archives and Records Administration
  • Library of Congress
  • Walworth Memorial Museum, Saratoga Springs History Museum, Saratoga Springs
  • New York University Archives, New York
  • Wisconsin Historical Society, Madison, Wisconsin
  • National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Maryland
  • Old Fulton NY Post Card Website, http://www.fultonhistory.com

How Did Settlement Workers at Greenwich House Promote the Arts as Integral to a Shared Social Life?

  • Tamiment Library, New York University, New York, New York
  • Greenwich House Collection
    • Greenwich House Papers

How Did the Views of Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Du Bois toward Woman Suffrage Change between 1900 and 1915?

  • Library of Congress
    • Booker T. Washington PapersSusan B. Anthony Papers
  • W.E.B. Du Bois Library, University of Massachusetts Amherst
    • Papers of W.E.B. Du Bois

 

Cornelia Bryce Pinchot's Reform Activism, 1908-1929

  • Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.
  • The Nation
  • Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography
  • U.S. National Park Service, Grey Towers National Historic Site, Milford, Penn.

How Did Local Branches of the American Association of University Women Contribute to Their Communities, 1900-1940?

  • Southern N.Y. Branch of the American Association of University Women
  • Special Collections, Bartle Library, State University of New York at Binghamton

How Did the Debate about Widows' Pensions Shape Relief Programs for Single Mothers, 1900-1940?

  • No copyrighted material employed

A World of Difference: Portland Women of the YWCA, 1901-2000

  • YWCA of the USA
  • YWCA of Greater Portland, Oregon
  • Oregon Historical Society
  • The Oregonian
  • Oregon State Library

How Did Iowa Women Activists Lobby for the Passage of the Juvenile Court Law, 1904?

  • State Historical Society of Iowa

How Did the General Federation of Women's Clubs Shape Women's Involvement in the Conservation Movement, and How Did Networking Contribute to the Success of Conservation Campaigns?

  • Yosemite Museum, National Park Service
  • New Hampshire Historical Society, Concord, N.H.
    • New Hampshire Federation of Women's Clubs Papers
  • General Federation of Women's Clubs Archives, Washington, D.C.
    • Papers of Mary Sherman
    • President's Papers
  • California Federation of Women's Clubs
  • University of New Hampshire Library, Milne Special Collections, Durham, N.H.
    • Society for the Protection of New Hampshire Forests Collection
  • Tom Bruce Phillips, Bruce Family Collection
  • New Hampshire Federation of Women's Clubs

Elizabeth Glendower Evans and Progressive Reform: From Minimum Wage to Sacco and Vanzetti and the American Civil Liberties Union, 1907-1938

  • Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America, Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.
  • Frederick R. Weisman Art Museum, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.
  • Harvard Law Library, Special Collections Department, Cambridge, Mass.

How Did Kate Richards O'Hare's Conviction and Incarceration for Sedition during World War I Change Her Activism?

  • Rare Book, Manuscript, and Special Collections Library, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina
  • Missouri Historical Society

How Was the Relationship between Workers and Allies Shaped by the Perceived Threat of Socialism in the New York City Shirtwaist Strike, 1909-1910?

  • University of Florida, Smathers Libraries
    • Margaret Dreier Robins Papers
  • Sophia Smith Collection, Smith College, Northampton, Mass.
    • Mary van Kleeck Papers

How Did Cross-Class Alliances Shape the 1910 Chicago Garment Workers' Strike?

  • Philoine Fried
  • Chicago Historical Society
    • Chicago Federation of Labor Records
  • Kheel Documentation Center, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY
    • Wertheimer CollectionUNITE HERE Archives
  • UNITE HERE, New York, N.Y.
  • Special Collections, The University Library, The University of Illinois at Chicago
    • Jane Addams Memorial Collection
  • Special Collections, University of Florida
    • Margaret Dreier Robins Papers

 

How Did Elisabeth Freeman's Publicity Skills Promote Woman Suffrage, Antilynching, and the Peace Movement, 1909-1919?

  • Margaret Johnston
  • Library of Congress
  • Historic National Woman's Party, Sewall-Belmont House, Washington, D.C.
  • Wisconsin Historical Society

How Did Carrie Chapman Catt and Aletta Jacobs Interpret and Cope with Deep Differences among Women during Their 1911-12 Journey through Africa and Asia?

  • ATRIA, Institute on Gender Equality and Women’s History, Amsterdam.
  • Biographical Dictionary of Socialism and the Labour Movement in the Netherlands (BWSA), International Institute of Social History, Amsterdam.
  • Manuscript Division, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.
  • Olive Schreiner Letters Online
  • Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America, Radcliffe Institute, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.
  • Special Collections Department, Bryn Mawr College Library, Bryn Mawr, Penn.
  • Swarthmore College Peace Collection, Swarthmore, Penn.
  • University Museum, Groningen, The Netherlands.

"How Did Women Anti-Suffragists in New York Try to Reconcile the Contradictions between Their Strategies and Arguments?"

  • Clinton Historical Society, Clinton, N.Y.
  • Sophia Smith Collection, Smith College, Northampton, Mass.
  • Women's National Republican Club, New York, N.Y.

The 1912 Lawrence Strike: How Did Immigrant Workers Struggle to Achieve an American Standard of Living?

  • American Textile History Museum, Lowell, Mass.
  • Archives of Labor and Urban Affairs, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan
  • Tamiment Institute Library, New York University
    • Rose Schneiderman Collection
  • George Meany Memorial Archives, Silver Spring, Maryland
    • Schnapper Collection
  • Wellesley College Archives
  • Walter Reuther Library, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan
  • Manuscripts and Archives Division, The New York Public Library
    • Lillian Wald Papers

How Did Belle La Follette Oppose Racial Segregation in Washington, D.C., 1913-1914?

  • Wisconsin Historical Society
  • Library of Congress
    • Woodrow Wilson Papers
  • Houghton Library, Harvard University
  • Seeley G. Mudd Manuscript Library, Princeton University

How Did the National Woman's Party Fund Its Activities, 1913-1940?

  • Historic National Woman's Party, Sewall-Belmont House, Washington, D.C.
  • Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley
  • Library of Congress Prints & Photographs
  • Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, Harvard University

How Did Women Activists Promote Peace in Their 1915 Tour of Warring European Capitals?

  • Swarthmore College Peace Collection
    • The Jane Adams Papers
    • Papers of Emily Greene Balch
    • Records of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom
  • Archives, University of Colorado at Boulder Libraries
    • WILPF Collection
  • The New York Public Library, Manuscripts and Archives Division, Astor, Lenox and Tilden Foundations
    • Schwimmer-Lloyd Collection

Maud Wood Park Archive: The Power of Organization, Part One: Maud Wood Park and the Woman Suffrage Movement

Maud Wood Park Archive: The Power of Organization, Part Two: Maud Wood Park in a Nation of Women Voters

  • Manuscript Division, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.
  • Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.

How Did Animosity Between Margaret Sanger and Mary Ware Dennett Shape the Movement to Legalize Birth Control?

  • Alexander Sanger
  • Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.
  • Marie Stopes International, London

Why Did the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom Campaign against Chemical Warfare, 1915-1930?

  • Swarthmore College Peace Collection
    • Records of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom
  • Archives, University of Colorado at Boulder Libraries
    • WILPF Collection

How Did Japanese Women Peace Activists Interact with European Women as they Negotiated between Nationalism and Transnational Peace Activism to Promote Peace, 1915-1935?

  • Fusae Ichikawa Memorial Association, Tokyo
  • KYOFUKAI-Japan Christian Women's Organization, Est. 1886, Tokyo
  • Library of Doshisha University, Kyoto-City, Japan
  • Ofu-kai for the Promotion of Education and Culture at Japan Women's University, Tokyo
  • Swarthmore College Peace Collection, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, Penn.
  • Tsudajuka College, Tokyo
  • Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, Geneva, Switzerland
  • Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, United States Section
  • Yomiuri Shinbun, Tokyo

Why Did Congressional Lobbying Efforts Fail to Eliminate Contraception from Obscenity Laws, 1916-1937?

  • Alexander Sanger
  • Sophia Smith Collection, Smith College, Northampton, Mass.
  • Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe University, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.
  • The Nation
  • New York University
    • Margaret Sanger Papers

What Lobbying Tactics Did Suffragists Use to Obtain Congressional Approval of a Woman Suffrage Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, 1917-1920?

  • Library of Congress
    • Papers of the National American Woman Suffrage AssociationCarrie Chapman Catt Papers
  • Iowa State University Library/University Archives
  • Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute, Harvard University
    • Mary Garrett Hay Papers (Woman's Rights Collection)

What Infant and Maternal Health Services Did Middle-Class Clubwomen Provide for Immigrant Women and Children in New York City, 1917-1920?

  • Manuscripts and Archives Division, The New York Public Library, Astor, Lenox and Tilden Foundations
    • Mary Garrett Hay Scrapbook
  • Archives and Special Collections, Hunter College, New York
    • WCCNY Papers

How Did Texas Women Win Partial Suffrage in a One-Party Southern State in 1918?

  • Center for American History, University of Texas at Austin
    • M.M. Crane Papers
    • Mrs. Percy V. Pennybacker Papers
    • Texas War Records, World War I Collection
  • Special Collections, University of Houston Libraries
    • Minnie Fisher Cunningham Papers

What Challenges Did Secretaries of the East St. Louis National Catholic Community House Face in their Social Work with Immigrants, 1918-1922?

  • American Catholic Research Center and University Archives, Catholic University of America, Washington, D.C.

How Did Black Women in the NAACP Promote the Dyer Anti-Lynching Bill, 1918-1923?

  • Library of Congress
    • NAACP Papers

How Did the National Woman's Party Address the Issue of the Enfranchisement of Black Women, 1919-1924?

  • National Woman's Party (For additional information on the National Woman's Party, you may contact NWP President, Dorothy Ruth Ferrell, at 202-546-1210.)
  • Library of Congress
    • Mary Church Terrell Collection
    • National Woman's Party Papers
    • National Association for the Advancement of Colored People Papers

How Did the Republican Party Respond to Woman Suffragists' Entry into Electoral Politics, 1919-1926?

  • Department of Rare Books and Special Collections, University of Rochester Library
  • The New York Public Library, Manuscripts and Archives Division, Astor, Lenox and Tilden Foundations
    • Mary Garrett Hay Scrapbook

What Was the Relationship between Mary Church Terrell's International Experience and Her Work against Racism in the United States?

  • Library of Congress, Manuscript Division, Washington, D.C.

Pacifism vs. Patriotism in Women's Organizations in the 1920s: How Was the Debate Shaped by the Expansion of the American Military?

  • Sophia Smith Collection, Smith College, Northampton, Mass.
    • Bailie Papers
  • Swarthmore College Peace Collection
    • Records of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom
    • Hannah Clothier Hull Papers
    • Jane Addams Papers

How Did Margaret Sanger's 1922 Tour of Japan Help Spread the Idea of Birth Control and Inspire the Formation of a Japanese Birth Control Movement?

  • The Japan Times, Ltd., Tokyo, Japan
  • Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.
  • The National Diet Library, Tokyo, Japan
  • Penn State Harrisburg Library, The Pennsylvania State University Libraries
  • Rauner Special Collections, Dartmouth College Library, Hanover, N.H.
  • Alexander Sanger
  • Sophia Smith Collection, Smith College, Northampton, Mass.
  • The Yomiuri Shinbun Company, Tokyo, Japan

Who Won the Debate over the Equal Rights Amendment in the 1920s?

  • Katha Pollitt
  • National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, Behring Center
  • Library of Congress
  • The Nation

How Did Leaders of the National Consumers' League and Their Lawyers Keep the Minimum Wage Alive from the Adkins Case to the Fair Labor Standards Act, 1923-1938?

  • Columbia Center for Oral History Archives, Rare Book & Manuscript Library, Columbia University, New York, N.Y.
  • The Nation, New York, N.Y.
  • Penguin Random House, New York, N.Y.

How Did Women Shape the Presentation of Norwegian American Ethnicity at the 1925 Norse-American Centennial?

  • Minnesota Historical Society
  • Augsburg Fortress Publishing
  • Minneapolis Star Tribune

The Women's Pages of The Western Producer, 1925-1939

  • The Western Producer, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan

How Did Women Peace Activists Respond to "Red Scare" Attacks during the 1920s?

  • Rockford College, Archives Room, Howard Colman Library, Rockford, IL
  • Sophia Smith Collection, Smith College, Northampton, Mass.
    • Bailie Papers
  • Swarthmore College Peace Collection
    • Hannah Clothier Hull Papers
    • Jane Addams Papers
  • The New York Public Library, Manuscripts and Archives Division, Astor, Lenox and Tilden Foundations
    • Florence Kelley Papers

 

How Did Rank and File Women Construct the "New Negro Woman" within the Universal Negro Improvement Association in the 1920s?

  • No copyrighted material employed.

What Perspectives Did African American Advocates Bring to the Birth Control Movement and How Did Those Perspectives Shape the History of the Harlem Branch Birth Control Clinic?

  • Alexander Sanger
  • New York Public Library, New York, N.Y.
    • Milstein Division of United States History, Local History & Genealogy
  • Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.
    • Margaret Sanger Papers
  • Sophia Smith Collection, Northampton, Mass.
    • Margaret Sanger Papers
  • New York Amsterdam News

How Did Women Shape the Discourse and Further Interracial Cooperation in the Worldwide Mass Movement to Free the Scottsboro Boys?

  • Mari Jo Buhle, Paul Buhle, Dan Georgakas, and Robin D. G. Kelley
    • "Scottsboro Case," in Mari Jo Buhle, Paul Buhle, and Dan Georgakas, eds., Encyclopedia of the American Left, second edition (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998), pp. 730-32.
  • Douglas O. Linder, University of Missouri Kansas City, School of Law
  • People's Weekly World, Chicago, Ill.
  • Reference Center for Marxist Studies, New York, N.Y.
    • Labor Defender
    • The Shame of America
    • Southern Worker
  • Tamiment Library, New York University, New York, N.Y.
    • Clarina Michelson Papers

How Did Women Needleworkers Influence New Deal Labor Policies in Puerto Rico?

  • Prints & Photographs Division, Library of Congress

How Did Eleanor Roosevelt’s Alliance with Women in the Labor Movement Benefit Working Women and Contribute to Her Emergence as a Significant Voice for Democracy and Human Rights, 1902-1962?

  • American Federation of Labor-Congress of Industrial Organizations, Washington, D.C.
  • Archives of Labor and Urban Affairs, Walter P. Reuther Library, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI.
  • Maurine Beasley
  • Beth Archer Bromberg
  • Eleanor Roosevelt Papers Project, The George Washington University, Washington, D.C.
  • Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum, Hyde Park, N.Y.
  • New-York Historical Society, New York, N.Y.

How Did the League of Women Shoppers Use Their Privilege to Act in Solidarity with Workers, 1935-1948?

  • American Textile History Museum, Lowell, Mass.
  • Pelletier Library, Allegheny College, Meadville, Pa.
  • Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.
  • Sophia Smith Collection, Smith College, Northampton, Mass.
  • Special Collections, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries, Milwaukee, WI

How Did Mexican Working Women Assert Their Labor and Constitutional Rights in the 1938 San Antonio Pecan Shellers Strike?

  • The American Civil Liberties Union of Texas
  • Special Collections, University of Texas at San Antonio Library
  • Texas Labor Archives, Special Collections, University of Texas at Arlington
  • People's History of Texas
  • UT Institute of Texan Cultures at San Antonio
  • The People's Weekly World
  • San Antonio Express-News

How Did the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union and Chinese Garment Workers Unite to Organize the 1938 National Dollar Stores Strike?

  • Labor Archives and Research Center, San Francisco State University
    • ILGWU Archives
    • Sue Ko Lee notebook
  • UNITE, New York, N.Y.
    • Justice
  • San Francisco Examiner
  • Judy Yung
  • National Archives, Archives II, College Park, Md.
    • RG 25, National Labor Relations Board
  • Institute of Industrial Relations, University of California, Berkeley
    • Oral Histories Collection

How Did the March on Washington Movement's Critique of American Democracy in the 1940s Awaken African American Women to the Problem of Jane Crow?

  • A. Philip Randolph Institute, Washington, D.C.
  • Chicago Defender, Chicago, Illinois
  • Charlotte Sheedy Literary Agency for Estate of Pauli Murray
  • Dorothy Height
  • George Washington Law Review
  • Tamiment Library, New York University

How Did Female Protestant Missionaries Respond to the Japanese American Incarceration Experience during World War II?

  • Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley, CA
  • Charles E. Young Special Collections, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA
  • Presbyterian Historical Society, Philadelphia, PA
  • Special Collections, The Flora Lamson Hewlett Library Special Collections, Graduate Theological Union, Berkeley, CA

Why Did the Iowa League of Women Voters Oppose the Equal Rights Amendment during the 1940s and 1950s?

  • Iowa Women's Archives, University of Iowa Libraries

How Did Florence Kitchelt Bring Together Social Feminists and Equal Rights Feminists to Reconfigure the Campaign for the ERA in the 1940s and 50s?

  • Bachrach Studio
  • Historic National Woman's Party, Washington, D.C.
  • Library of Congress
  • National League of Women Voters, Washington, D.C.
  • The New Republic
  • Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.
  • Yale University Library, New Haven, Conn.

How Did Suburban Development and Domesticity Shape Women's Activism in Queens, New York, 1945-1968?

  • Bayside Times
  • Dorot Jewish Division, New York Public Library
  • Betty Friedan
  • Harper's Magazine
  • New York City Municipal Archives
  • Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute, Harvard University
  • Special Collections and University Archives, Rutgers University Libraries

How Did White Southern Churchwomen Use Their Race, Gender, and Faith in the Struggle for Civil Rights, 1945-1968?

  • Alabama Department of Archives and History, Montgomery, Alabama
  • Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs
  • Marge Frantz, Santa Cruz, California
  • R. W. Woodruff Library, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia
  • Southern Regional Council, Atlanta, Georgia
  • University Press of Florida, Gainesville, Florida
  • Archives and Special Collections, Winthrop College, Rock Hill, South Carolina

How Did the Society of Women Engineers (SWE) Work to Expand Women's Education and Employment Opportunities, 1950-1977?

  • Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts
  • Society of Women Engineers, Chicago, Illinois
  • Walter P. Reuther Library and Archives of Labor and Urban Affairs, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan

"The Ladder: A Lesbian Review, 1956-1972"

  • Daughters of Bilitis, San Francisco, Calif.

How Did Ideologies of Gender and Professionalism Intersect in the History of Nursing in Oregon?

  • The Bancroft Libray, University of California, Berkeley
    • War Relocation Authority Photographs of Japanese-American Evacuation and Resettlement
  • Lenora Morris
  • Oregon Nurses Association Archives, Tualatin, Oregon
  • Heather Reynolds
  • Patricia Schechter
  • Darcy Strachan

How Did Catholic Women Participate in the Rebirth of American Feminism?

  • Commonwealth: The Next Generation
  • Sheed & Ward Book Publishing
  • Cross Currents
  • Beacon Press
  • Marquette University Department of Special Collections and University Archives, Milwaukee, Wisconsin
    • Margaret Ellen Traxler Records
    • Women's Ordination Conference Records
    • National Coalition of American Nuns Records
  • E. J. Farians
  • Shawn Copeland
  • Ann Patrick Ware
  • Agnes Mary Mansour
  • Priscilla H. Ballou
  • Yolando Tarango
  • Ada Maria Isasi-Diaz
  • Archives of the University of Notre Dame, Hesburgh Library, Notre Dame, Indiana
    • Mary B. Lynch Collection
    • National Assembly of Women Religious Collection
  • The New Republic
  • Sisters of Mercy Institutional Archives, Silver Spring, Maryland
  • Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion

How Did African American Women Shape the Civil Rights Movement and What Challenges Did They Face?

  • Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America, Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.
  • Avery Research Center for African American History and Culture, College of Charleston, Charleston, S.C.
  • Board of Regents of the University System of Georgia
  • Ella Baker Center for Human Rights, Oakland, Calif.
  • Jean Weisinger
  • Memphis Public Library and Information Center, Memphis, Tenn.
  • Michele Wallace
  • Montgomery County Archives, Montgomery, Ala.
  • Moorland-Spingarn Research Center, Howard University, Washington, D.C.
  • National Archives for Black Women’s History, Mary McLeod Bethune Council House, Washington, D.C.
  • North Carolina Office of Archives and History, Raleigh, N.C.
  • Perseus Books Group, New York, N.Y.
  • Special Collections Department, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Ark.
  • State Archives of Florida, Tallahassee, Fla.
  • University Library, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, N.C.
  • University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, Tenn.

How Did the Canadian Women's Liberation Movement Emerge from the Sixties Student Movements?

  • Jody Berland
  • Mary Cohen
  • Judi Darcy
  • Peak Publications Society
  • Jean Rands
  • Anne Roberts
  • Linda Seese
  • Simon Fraser University Student Society
  • Peter Warrian
  • Ellen Woodsworth

How and Why Was Feminist Legal Strategy Transformed, 1960-1973?

  • Charlotte Sheedy Literary Agency for the Estate of Pauli Murray
  • George Washington Law Review
  • National Woman's Party, Washington, D.C.
  • Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute, Harvard University
  • Sophia Smith Collection, Smith College, Northampton, Massachusetts

How Did State Commissions on the Status of Women Overcome Historic Antagonisms between Equal Rights and Labor Feminists to Create a New Feminist Mainstream, 1963-1973?

  • American Association of University Women, Washington, D.C.
  • National Woman's Party, Sewall-Belmont House and Museum, Washington, D.C.
  • Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul
    • Viola Hymes Papers
  • Ohio Historical Society, Columbus
    • Records of the Ohio Commission on the Status of Women
  • Nebraska State Historical Society, Lincoln
    • Records of the Nebraska Commission on the Status of Women
  • Wisconsin Historical Society, Madison
    • Records of the Wisconsin Commission on the Status of Women
  • Vermont Historical Society, Montpelier
    • Records of the Vermont Commission on the Status of Women
  • Indiana Historical Society, Indianapolis
    • Records of the Indiana Commission on the Status of Women

How and Why Did Women in SNCC (the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee) Author a Pathbreaking Feminist Manifesto, 1964– 1965?

  • Jane Adams
  • Elaine DeLott Baker
  • Lois Chaffee
  • Charles Cobb
  • M. Phyllis Cunningham
  • Constance Curry
  • Sara M. Evans
  • Casey Hayden (aka Sandra Cason)
  • Karen Horn
  • Stuart House
  • George King
  • Staughton Lynd
  • Mike Miller
  • Tony Mitchell
  • John Mudd
  • Silas Norman, Jr.
  • Penny Patch
  • Betty Garman Robinson

 

How Did Shirley Chisholm, the First African American Woman Elected to the United States Congress, Advance an Inclusive Feminist Politics in the 1960s and 1970s?

  • Associated Press, New York, N.Y.
  • Brooklyn College Library Archives & Special Collections, Brooklyn, N.Y.
  • Condé Nast, New York, N.Y.
  • Meredith Corporation, Des Moines, I.A.
  • NARAL Pro-Choice America, Washington, D.C.
  • New York Amsterdam News, New York, N.Y.

How Did Feminism Contribute to the Transformation of Radical Theater in the United States, 1966-1983?

  • Allentown Morning Call, Allentown, PA
  • Jose Carrillo, Seattle, WA
  • City Lights Books, San Francisco, CA
  • Daily Cardinal, Madison, WI
  • R.G. Davis, San Francisco, CA
  • Marcia McClintock Folsom, Boston, MA
  • Joan Holden, San Francisco, CA
  • Melody James, Westport, CT
  • Michael James, Chicago, IL
  • David Kolodney, Oakland CA
  • Margaret Leahy, San Francisco, CA
  • MIT Press Journals
  • San Francisco Chronicle
  • San Francisco Mime Troupe
  • Theodore Shank, La Jolla, CA

 

What Factors Led to the Success of the Historic 1970 Sex Discrimination Complaint Filed against the University of Michigan?

  • American Council on Education, Washington, D.C.
  • Association of American Universities, Washington, D.C.
  • Bentley Historical Library, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan
  • The Detroit News, Detroit, Mich.
  • Mary Maples Dunn
  • Elizabeth J. Farians
  • Marcia Federbush
  • Sara J. Fitzgerald
  • The Michigan Daily
  • MLive Media Group (on behalf of the Ann Arbor News)
  • Bernice R. Sandler
  • Kathleen K. Shortridge
  • Daniel Zwerdling

 

How Did the Los Angeles Woman's Building Keep Feminism Alive, 1970-1991?

  • The Woman's Building Digital Art Project
  • The Woman's Building, Los Angeles, California
  • Woman's Building Archive, Otis College of Art and Design, Los Angeles, California
  • Maria Karras
  • Marilyn Gottschall
  • Linda Nishio
  • Denise Yarfitz
  • Terry Wolverton

"Free Angela Davis, And All Political Prisoners!": A Transnational Campaign for Liberation

  • Bettina Aptheker
  • Art Resource, Inc., New York, N.Y.
  • Catlett Mora Family Trust
  • Robert S. Cohen
  • Deborah Cohen Strod
  • Angela Y. Davis
  • Department of Special Collections and University Archives, Stanford University Libraries
  • Literary Estate of Herbert Marcuse, Peter Marcuse, Executor
  • National Portrait Gallery
  • Peoplesworld.org
  • Special Collections and Archives, University Library, University of California, Santa Cruz
  • W.S. Hoole Special Collections Library, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Ala.
  • Words for Women, Sydney, Australia
    • Martha Ansara, Ann Curthoys, Camille Guy, Lyndall Roper

How Did Women's Groups in the American Library Association Promote Activism around Women's Issues in Librarianship during the 1970s?

  • American Library Association, Chicago, Ill.
  • Library Journal, New York, N.Y.
  • American Libraries, Chicago, Ill.
  • Wilson Library Bulletin

How Did Working-Class Feminists Meet the Challenges of Working across Differences? The National Congress of Neighborhood Women, 1974-2006

  • Sophia Smith Collection, Smith College, Northampton, Mass.
    • National Congress of Neighborhood Women Records, 1974-1999
  • Janice Peterson
  • Christine Noschese
  • Linsy Van Gelder
  • Joyce Maynard and Rona Maynard
  • Rosemary Jackson
  • Sally Martino Fisher
  • Ethel Velez
  • Martha Ackelsberg
  • Janie Eisenberg
  • Tamar Carroll

How Did Diverse Activists in the Second Wave of the Women's Movement Shape Emerging Public Policy on Sexual Harassment?

  • Rochelle Lefkowitz
  • Karen Lindsay
  • Anne Dockery
  • Redbook
  • Karen Sauvigné
  • Archives of Appalachia, East Tennessee State University
  • Yale University Press

How Did National Women's Conference in Houston in 1977 Shape a Feminist Agenda for the Future?

  • Diana Mara Henry
  • Sarah Harder
  • Mal Johnson
  • National Women's Conference Committee
  • Journal of World History, University of Hawaii Press

How Did Iowa Coalitions Campaign for the Equal Rights Amendment in 1980 and 1992?

  • Iowa Women's Archives, University of Iowa Libraries

How Did Chinese Women Garment Workers in New York City Forge a Successful Class-Based Coalition during the 1982 Contract Dispute?

  • UNITE Local 23-25
  • Cornell University Press
  • Amerasia
  • Lora Jo Foo
  • Hui Yu, AnHui University of Technology, AnHui, China

How and Why Did the Guerrilla Girls Alter the Art World Establishment in New York City, 1985-1995?

Why and How Did a Small Group of Maverick Abortion Providers Called the November Gang Come to Challenge Prevailing Conventions of Abortion Provision and What Were Their Innovations?

  • Abortion Conversation Project
  • Ruth Arick
  • Elizabeth Barnes
  • Sally Bingham Collection, Duke University Library, Durham, N.C.
  • Renee N. Chelian
  • Daryl Chen
  • Sara Derenge
  • Dynamis
  • Amy Hagstrom Miller
  • Carole Joffe
  • Peg Johnston
  • Claire Keyes
  • Jeannie Ludlow
  • Terry Sallas Merritt
  • National Abortion Federation, Washington, D.C.
  • National Coalition of Abortion Providers
  • Shelley Oram
  • Our Bodies, Ourselves
  • Susan Postal
  • Arthur Shostak
  • Charlotte Taft
  • Rev. Rebecca Turner
  • Miriam Ward of Rewire
  • Carole Watchler
  • Pamela Wilson
  • Women’s Studies Quarterly

How Do Social Movements Shape Civil Rights Legislation for Women? The 1994 Violence Against Women Act

  • Southern California Law Review
  • Harvard Law Review

Black Woman Suffragists collection:

  • American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, Mass.
  • Amistad Research Center, Tulane University, New Orleans, La.
  • Buffalo History Museum, Buffalo, N.Y.
  • Carole Ione Lewis, Kingston, New York
  • Department of Rare Books and Manuscripts, Boston Public Library, Boston, Mass.
  • Friends Historical Library, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, Penn.
  • John Hope and Aurelia E. Franklin Library, Fisk University, Nashville, Tenn.
  • Manuscript Division, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.
  • Mary Elizabeth Alexander Brown Cannaday, Washington, D.C.
  • Moorland-Spingarn Research Center, Howard University, Washington, D.C.
  • National Association of Colored Women's Clubs
  • Rush Rhees Library, University of Rochester, Rochester, N.Y.
  • Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, N.J.
  • Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.
  • Sophia Smith Collection, Smith College, Northampton, Mass.
  • Southern Historical Collection, Wilson Library, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, N.C.
  • Special Collections Research Center, University of Chicago Library, Chicago, Ill.
  • Special Collections, University of Delaware Library, Newark, Del.
  • Tamiment Library, Robert F. Wagner Labor Archives, New York University, New York, N.Y.
  • The Pennsylvania Gazette, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Penn.
  • William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich.